Conditioning for Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) Adriano Vretaros Strength and Conditioning Coach São Paulo – BRAZIL [email protected] Conditioning for. PDF | 65 minutes read | word count: | ResearchGate, the professional s ummarized for application in Mixed Martial Arts. Conclusion: The. “I recommend this book.” —Lyoto. “The Dragon”. Machida. Catch your opponent off guard with unorthodox sumo techniques. FOR. SUMO for Mixed. Martial Arts.
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Full text of "The Ultimate Mixed Martial Arts Training Guide [Techniques For Fitness, Self Defense & Competition].pdf (PDFy mirror)". See other formats. Mixed Martial Arts include various types of fights in which a winner can be declared and grappling techniques from a variety of combat sports and martial arts. The Art of Boxing as recreation for all ages and demographics.» detailed guides for skill analysis, . Boxing Training for Mixed Martial Arts. ➅ CHAPTER 6.
No matter how good a striker you are, if you can be taken down at will, you cannot use your striking moves to any good effect. And no matter how good a grappler you are, if you are taken down and end up on the bottom every time, you are going to have a very hard time of it.
Wrestling and grappling skills are dealt with in full detail in Chapter 3. The reason for this is physiological. Your arms are free to move around in the air, whereas your legs are needed to keep your body from falling over. Although the knees and legs are far more powerful than the elbow even, they are occupied most of the time with keeping your body up and moving around.
Having indicated all this, every striking technique described here is important in MMA. Knockouts can be scored with any of them. They all wear down your opponent. All have their uses. This is the most important single strike in MMA. Since you actually have to hurt your opponent, not just score lots of touches with your front hand, this punch reigns supreme among punching attacks. The traditional name for this punch is the cross punch, since the punch travels across your body from behind to in front.
Another name for the cross is the reverse. Your palm turns to face down. Rotate your right shoulder forward and shrug it up to keep your face covered in case of a counterstrike.
Twist your right hip forward too, as far as you can. Lunge forward with your left foot and allow your right to angle up on the ball of the foot, also rotating into the attack. The punch is stronger if you have the feeling of grinding into the ground with your rear foot, but this is not to say that the cross cannot be done with your back foot travelling through the air. If your body is moving forward, you can still land a heavy punch with your back foot up.
Even though rotation is involved, think of the punch as a linear thing, aimed directly at the target. Surely a moving target will require creative angles of delivery, but always think of the move as a direct stab into the victim as if your knuckles had blades jutting out from them. Hitting any part of the face or jaw is excellent as these parts of the head are weak.
You can of course aim to hit the solar plexus, ribs, and other vulnerable parts of the torso too. The main target, though, is the head because it is easier to hit. All striking techniques can be delivered with a jump. Remember to train to deliver them fast and with accuracy! Although we do use small gloves, the hand itself needs to be strong.
If you can get up on your feet into a wide stance, you can develop a lot of rotational motion using your legs and torso to wind into your punches. As your adversary is worried about getting his face knocked in, you can step or hop around or through his legs and get to a better position such as full mount or side mount. More on them later. Even though the cross punch is about 30 percent more powerful than the jab, the jab is extremely important due to its greater range of motion, and it is in fact the second most important technique in MMA.
Because the jab is delivered with your lead hand and therefore closer to your opponent, you can send it more quickly and have a much better chance of making contact.
You can knock an opponent out with it; it is a strong punch when delivered with proper attitude. The main thing to keep in mind is that in MMA actually hurting your adversary matters, so focus on making your jabs both speedy and powerful. Your shoulder shrugs up to cover your face, and you also rotate your shoulder and hip forward to achieve maximum extension.
You lunge forward with your same-side foot. When the side that your adversary expects to be jabbing turns into the cross punch and vice versa, your hits become harder to avoid. No matter which hand you are hitting with, the movement is the same. A picture-perfect hook supposedly has a degree angle at the elbow. As with the other punches, shrug your shoulder up for defense.
You do not necessarily need to rotate your palm down. This is a really great punch when you have come to grips.
Combining it with the single overhook grab with the other hand is an awesome technique. If you jump and rotate in the air while executing this technique, it can surprise and intimidate your adversary. The uppercut is used to strike upward from below.
You start the punch low and angle it straight up at the target. In MMA it is best not to crouch down much while dealing the uppercut because of the danger of knees and wrestling holds. Move your body as you would for a jab or cross punch: This strike is nearly as strong as the cross punch. You deliver it with the hand that is farthest back. Your back leg, let us say left leg, spins your whole body around clockwise, pivoting on your forward right foot.
Be sure to turn your head a little before your body so that you see your target clearly and aim before your hand gets there. It is therefore a less common move, although it does score sometimes. It is good to use to confuse your opponent, as it is an attack that does everything the opposite of what is to be expected. Just make sure you do not end up confusing yourself instead! Hammer Fist. If you are delivering this punch on your feet, it is somewhat slow compared to the others, in spite of its great power.
On the ground it is a different story. It is excellent there, as it does not rely so much on the twisting of the body or the moving of the legs to generate force, Hammer Fist Through Guard but rather on the up-anddown alignment of muscles through your torso and arm. This can make it much easier to deliver in many situations on the ground than the jab or cross.
From a standing position, the front of the elbow can be delivered in one of three ways: A fourth strike, a jab, is executed with the back of the elbow. Elbowing horizontally across the forehead can cut your antagonist, leading to a possible referee stoppage. The elbow can be done with either the lead arm or back arm depending on the circumstances.
It is great to combine elbowing with a single overhook grab. It can be done with or without a grip equally well and is a very powerful move. On the ground it is excellent to complement pins and to attack the turtle more on turtling later. The delivery area is the part of the forearm closest to the elbow.
The target is Elbow in the Clinch the head. Flying elbows can come in handy. The most powerful weapon in your arsenal is the knee. Its force has been compared to that of a truck. You can also knee to the ribs, stomach, and legs. Often a one- or two-step lead-up is required to generate the kind of height needed. When an opponent is tired and reacting slowly later in a match, this move can be very effective.
Make sure you point your toes down as far as you can, as this makes your knee strike swifter. On the ground you can knee your adversary from almost every top position. Targets for your knees on the ground are the ribs and head if allowed by the rules. Roundhouse Kick. While the knee certainly is powerful, it lacks the range of a kick. The roundhouse kick is the strongest kick.
The angled version of this kick is often called the triangle kick, and it is quicker to deliver than the horizontal roundhouse. When delivering any kick, bring the foot directly from the ground to the target along its prescribed course. You do not want to do that. But do not miss the chance to kick your adversary in the head or face if you are able to do so safely, particularly when he is getting tired and you are still feeling energetic.
All the same, scoring a good solid roundhouse kick to the ribs is a good thing to do whenever you can! The best part of your leg to deliver the kick with is your shin rather than the top of your foot because of the chance of the little bones of your foot breaking if you hit with the foot.
But your shin could also break, making toughening the shin very important for developing this technique into a useful tool for you. Shins are known to snap right in half when a kick is blocked with a stronger shin, leaving a horrible injury.
You also need to be able to tolerate the pain and force of a shin-on-shin collision due to a block or a simultaneous attack. Hit the heavy bag and hard focus pads a lot. Be careful how you train and use this technique. However, the kick still works if you strike with the front leg.
Whichever leg you kick with, you need to rotate the foot that stays on the ground in the direction of the kick so that you can twist your whole body into the blow. Therefore, if your kick is going counterclockwise, your supporting foot should rotate counterclockwise as well. If your kick is going clockwise, then your supporting foot is rotating clockwise also.
Exactly how or when you rotate your planted foot will depend on the exigencies of the moment. One good basic drill is to practice alternately kicking with a back leg roundhouse and a front leg jab kick, as this combination is as important for the feet as the jab—power punch combination is for the hands. On the ground, if your opponent is loosely in your guard, you might be able to kick into the side of his head with your heel, or even straight into his face. Push Kick.
Also known as the jab kick, the push kick is a really great kick. It is to the legs what the jab punch is to the arms. While it is not as devastating as the roundhouse kick, it is still very strong.
Tactically it is extremely important. An advancing adversary can be push kicked in the stomach under his arms, and he will be stopped immediately. An opponent can be pushed back with the kick when too close for comfort. The push kick is normally unleashed on the stomach area and the upper legs.
You can even use this kick as a kind of heel kick to the face when the adversary is in your guard on the ground and is not being careful. In this case it can be delivered directly or with some circularity. Rotate your hip forward to get more power and more distance as you jab your foot out. You will be quite surprised by how much reach you can get with this kick.
Even if you watch someone else perform it, you will be amazed at how far its effective range is. After it is done, set your foot right back down in front of you. If you throw a push kick with the rear leg, the same rules apply. Twist your hip forward and stab your foot directly out into your opponent.
Using the back foot gives you more reach than using the front foot, so the back foot push kick can be used to cover more distance in your attack. It is slower, however, and therefore easier for your adversary to notice and take evasive action against. It is therefore not used as much as the front leg jab kick.
When delivering a kick with the back leg, the roundhouse is almost always to be preferred. You need to make your legs strong and fast. Starting High Push Kick: End ning, and of course huge numbers of repetitions against the heavy bag and focus mitts for power and accuracy. The legs are about four times stronger than the arms, and they can deliver heavier strikes. It is well worth your time mastering the art of kicking.
Mix kicks in with punches as part of your solo training, and get skillful at delivering killer combinations. Keep in mind that of the four main strikes, the jab and cross punches and the jab and roundhouse kicks, it is the cross punch and the roundhouse kick delivered with your rear leg that are the stronger ones. One special weakness of the push kick in MMA is that the kicking leg is liable to be caught in the hands or hooked with the crook of the elbow of the opponent, leading to a single leg throw.
Be aware of this when concocting strategies for the ring. The roundhouse kick is harder to catch. Sometimes you will do this merely to get space by pushing your opponent away or pushing off from him to launch yourself backward. Side Kick. From the knee up shielding position, you can deliver a side kick with the heel by rotating your foot so its inner edge is facing the ground and thrusting your heel into your opponent, usually into the ribs.
Because launching a side kick changes the angle of attack somewhat from what is expected by a basic push kick from this position, you might be able to score a solid and undefended hit with it. Spinning Back Kick. This kick is done to catch your opponent off guard. Because it is powerful and disorienting to your opponent, the spinning back kick is a worthwhile technique to attempt when the situation calls for it.
Assuming your right foot is in front, pivot on it counterclockwise while bringing up your left knee. Your method of getting to that position, however, is quite different from that of the side kick. This is why defense is important, although not as important as attack.
Eventually the attacker will score hits and the defender will lose. Also, by attacking, you make your opponent defend, preventing him or her from attacking you. Therefore, attacking has a defensive value that sometimes gets overlooked. In this sense, you need to think of defense as a means to prevent attack and also to retaliate.
It is for this reason that the arms are normally kept cocked by your face, as they are a shield, but also ready at all times to lash out at your opponent. Your legs are kept in a ready position to attack at all times as well; supporting you while you stand is a secondary function as their primary purpose in MMA is to unleash havoc on your adversary. The arms can parry blows by moving very slightly from their shielding positions: The forearms can change their angles to deal with various attacks.
This means that you do not have to waste much energy and time on defense. The forearms take the place of the sword blade, and they can do all the same kinds of parries, thrusts, and chops that a sword can do.
Parrying an outside punch to the inside makes for a good example. If you can combine parrying a kick with grappling the foot up for a throw, that is great too. Just bring your knee up and form a shield with your shin perpendicular to the ground.
If you put your elbow on the inside, the shield is weaker against powerful strikes. Your jab kick will serve you well to create distance, either through simply stopping your adversary in his tracks, pushing him back, or launching yourself back.
The jab punch can serve the same purpose closer up. This can make you vulnerable to knees and other blows to the face, although if you score a takedown and get top position on the ground, it was well worth it. A cowardly strategy, however, is no good. You have to be on the attack, wanting generally to advance on your adversary, being happy to get in for a clinch and deliver knees and perform throws. You should want to go to the ground taking top position there.
The best defense is a relentless offense. Safety is of paramount concern. Do not make your movements too swift or too powerful right off the bat, and of course, do not hit your training partners too hard.
Because grappling and wrestling involve gripping, developing a strong grip is essential for being able to make the techniques work. Exercises that develop a strong grip are crucial for MMA. Weights, rope climbing, grappling with a partner, and so on, are all ways to improve grip strength. Throws and Defenses The dominant grip for throwing is the double underhook. This raises his or her center of balance and makes achieving a throw relatively easy.
However, most throws can be done from an over-under grip too. Specialized throws like the shoulder throw work from grips that on their own are not very strong and therefore rely on speed and surprise for their effectiveness. Striking, clinch work, and throwing all have to go hand in hand. It is the pivot point of the match. If you are afraid of the clinch, you will always be running away from your opponent. If you are good at the clinch, you can win with knees and establish a dominant position on the ground with a good throw.
If you have taken a double overhook grip but are countered with a double underhook, you have to quickly swim your arms under to get a double underhook grip to prevent your opponent from throwing you. You also need to establish this grip if your opponent is keeping his head too high and you cannot bend it down to feed it into your knee. This activity to get the dominant grip is called pummeling and is done on its own as a form of grip training. Throwing in strikes like the elbow to the face from a single overhook, or suddenly removing a shoulder in order to swing in for a punch, or getting knees into the torso and head, are all things to consider to help you get that dominant grip.
One caution though is that if you are too focused on the achievement of the double underhook, your opponent could quickly grapple up your legs for a double leg throw or some other trick. Do not forget about the whizzer grip. All of the spinning throws mentioned in this section can be done as whizzers.
Still, the whizzer is a very risky move against a skilled wrestler as it involves giving up the dominant underhook grip to your opponent and hoping that while spinning you will actually throw him and not simply end up being pushed onto your face with your opponent over your back.
The actual delivery of this move is simple: Just watch that you do not get kneed in the head as you lower yourself. Sprawling is the major defense to the double leg throw. If you cannot avoid being thrown with this technique, then all your striking skills are for naught. On the offense, it is one of several good methods of taking down your opponent and ending up on top as a response to his double leg throw attempt.
Double Leg Throw Sprawling Chris right is sprawling to avoid a double leg throw. There are many ways to do the single leg depending on the circumstances.
You can trap the leg with an over grip or an under grip. You might grip closer to the ankle or to the knee. Your other arm might have an underhook grip or might not. You might hold the leg with both your arms or with only one. Real opponents do not just stand there and let you throw them down! To perform it, you need your legs behind your adversary so that you are both facing in more or less the same direction, but your opponent is in front of you. Use either a bear hug grip holding your opponent tightly around the belly from behind or another similar one and rotate your opponent down over the top of one of your legs.
Back Throw Chris on left performs a back throw on Adam. SWEEPING HIP THROW From a double underhook or even over-under grip, you turn in to throw your opponent over your hip, but to make matters worse for him, you sweep your leg on that side back and take his supporting leg on that side out of the picture while casting your opponent over and down in a large impressive and crashing movement.
The use of your leg to sweep helps to prevent your adversary from stepping around and out of your grip. It can even be done as a defense to your opponent pressing your turtle down, if you can grapple one of his arms in tight under one of your shoulders and twist through with it. Placing your foot on that side outside of his same-side foot is advisable to stop him from escaping.
The winding throw is a particularly good technique to use to escape a situation where you are turtling and your opponent is wrapping his arms around your chest or belly. If you can trap his arm on one side, you can easily perform the throw on the ground. There are therefore eight permutations of this throw. Outer Hook Throw Mickey in black performs an outer hook throw. Any hook throw can be easily reversed if you do not unbalance your adversary well in its execution.
They are the jabs of the wrestling world. As with the hook throws, there are eight versions of this technique. Foot sweeps must be done very quickly to work. Be ready to follow up with a throw in the opposite direction if your foot sweep fails to take your opponent down. Sometimes you will be able to do this when your opponent is fatigued or when he stumbles or makes an ineffective double or single leg throw attempt. This is a common follow-up, for instance, after you have sprawled.
It can be done either from a double overhook grip or simply by pushing down on the back of a stumbling or lunging forward opponent, while you jump your legs back out of the range of his arms.
Immediately upon pushing your opponent down, keep the pressure down on his back while spinning your legs around behind him. Now you can consider what kind of turtle attacks you want to launch.
Push Down Throw: Finish position to this one, and you might combine the two techniques together or not depending on your strategy at the time. You will be able to push him down to the ground and follow up there, staying on his back. Gravity is a very strong force on us, and it regulates everything we do in life.
It also governs everything we do in the arena. Fighting gravity is hard enough. Fighting gravity and another person on top of you as well is extremely hard. For this reason you must strive to achieve top position on the ground and maintain it. The skill is in keeping your adversary pinned down and in place while you generate windup space for your hits.
Generally, the way out of a pin involves you spinning your entire body clockwise or counterclockwise as the situation dictates, choosing the path of least resistance. There are often a number of ways to do this including pushing off, jolting, and even waiting for your opponent to release the pressure a little while he transitions into another move or winds up to strike. Arching the back and randomly thrusting the hips upward are also very important.
Getting hands, knees, and elbows in between you and your opponent is also part of escaping. The triangle choke is particularly effective for attacking someone in your guard. Open guard describes the guard position when you do not have your feet attached together like this. If the clinch is the most volatile position in MMA, the guard is certainly the second most important.
But it is the best position from which to attack the guard. You will have to bend down into your strikes to make them land.
It takes training to get good at this, but that simply means that you must train hard for it. You might be able to score a knockout or referee stoppage if you are good at this.
The whole time you have to be able to ensure your opponent does not pull off a sweep against you and topple you over onto the ground. You need to train to stand up in the guard like this while grappling against a training partner who is trying his best to sweep you down or submit you. You can slide either knee over either thigh. One way or another, bring your trailing leg through as well and plant it on the ground too.
If you bring your right knee across Knee Through Pass: Knee Through Pass: Mickey can now establish full mount, which is better than getting stuck in half guard. Full mount is better than side mount, but it is easier for your opponent to ensnare your left leg between his while you are passing if you employ this right knee across left thigh technique. Therefore, which side to pass on depends more on the feeling of the moment, following the path of least resistance, as each side has its positives and negatives.
Start Hop Over Pass: Obviously this is not a technique to employ when your opponent is gripping you tightly with his legs but is rather one to use when there is a fair bit of space and your opponent is distracted or tired. You should be able now to simply pounce into a side mount position on your opponent. However, this is what training is for. In the ring, may the best man win! Sweeps refer to taking down someone in your guard and ending up on top of him. Start Mickey in black is sweeping Chris in white.
Scissors Sweep: End To execute a scissors sweep, hug your opponent in tight to your chest while blocking one of his thighs with one of yours. However, you usually have to add another element to it.
Now, roll him over to your left so your adversary is on his back and you can establish full mount. Elevator Sweep, Part 2 Chris is sent flying. Start If you squeeze your opponent in tight with your arms, you can easily launch him or her right over your head and land on top in full mount. Midway Chris in white is now unbalanced and is being rolled over.
It is only half as good a defense as the basic guard, since your opponent has a fair amount of stability to use against you for striking. Conversely, you might be able, if you have, say, his right leg trapped between yours, to pull his torso in close, turn your hips clockwise so you are on your right hip, and establish a kind of side hold on your adversary. From here you can shift your weight on top of his back while keeping the leg grappled up between yours and actually establish a face down pin called a leg ride!
Good training to keep yourself from getting swept from this position is important. If you bring it through on the side your other leg is on, it is a bit easier than pressing it over the other side. In MMA, the half guard is a rather dominant position for the one on top because of the striking possibilities from it. You do not want to stay there long.
Ideally you want to get up without exposing your back to your opponent. So practice, from a guard position, bringing one foot back underneath your hips and standing up on it while swinging your other leg back and into position.
This is something that takes some getting used to through repetitive training. Because striking is a part of mixed martial arts, you can consider yourself now in a dominant position. Keep your opponent from standing up by pressing your chest or forearms down on his back, or in some other way. This choke is detailed under its own heading. Pull back with your legs and press forward with your hips so that the trapped leg is tightly ensnared.
You need to be quick enough to realize that you can now throw some strikes at his head without much fear of being rolled over. Face Down Mickey is punching Adam, who is in the face down position, in the head. You can do this by forcing your adversary down to a turtle position from standing with a push down or by getting to a leg ride position.
If you are lucky, your opponent will mistakenly open the door for you by simply giving you his back while turning or spinning. Press forward strongly with your hips while pulling back forcefully with your heels. Get your arms around his throat and ideally slide one of them under his chin, pulling back strongly with your arms too.
The objective here is the rear naked choke. Then, knocking or otherwise ensuring his right hand is not posting on the ground to prevent it, roll counterclockwise. There will be nothing to stop you from rolling your adversary over.
You will end up in his guard, but that is a good thing. You are now on top. You are pinning your opponent down from the side. There are a few different positions for your arms. The best submission available from here is the americana armlock discussed later. In terms of stability, the side mount is one of the most stable of all the pins because your downed opponent has nothing under your lower body to disturb your balance.
So this pin is normally used as a transitional pin to achieve full mount. Stretch your legs out straight, your right foot far out from his head and your left foot far out from his lower body.
From this pin you can transition to two submissions directly: The scarf hold is the strongest pin there is, but making even a slight mistake can give your back to your opponent, so it is risky, albeit sometimes well worth the risk! You can think of it as a scarf hold with a variant grip.
To get out of a scarf hold, get your elbow on the side of the hold down on the ground, and then get your knee on that side to more or less connect with your elbow. Shrimping your hips out helps with this. This position looks something like a lying down version of the kickboxing shielding position.
Beware though of your downed opponent kneeing you in the head from here! It is the reverse, more or less, of the scarf hold. It is also possible to roll counterclockwise over your shoulder blades to achieve a high side mount or north-south pin. You might try to add in an elbow to the face as part of the deal. Therefore, endless amounts of grappling are required to actually be able to make these things work against another skilled competitor in a match.
Squeeze everything in tight while continuing your lower body pressure, pulling back with your legs and pressing forward with your hips. Whether you are executing this submission face down or face up makes no difference, it is done the same way: After generating this bit of safety space, you need to try as hard as you can to spin your whole body around to face your assailant.
When someone is in your guard, pull his right arm across you so that it is more or less to your right, either held tightly with your hands or clamped against you under your right arm. Next, hook the top of your right ankle under the crook of your left knee. This ought to press and trap his right arm against your chest. This will induce either a tap out or unconsciousness. Triangle Choke, Part 1: Triangle Choke, Part 2: Setting Legs Both legs are in place now. Triangle Choke, Part 3: As always, to get good at both attack and defense for this move, you need to do lots of grappling.
There is no easy or simple way about it. Having done this, press your right shoulder and face hard against his right arm and face and join your hands together to increase the pressure. This position generates the same kind of choke as the triangle choke, but it uses your arms instead of your legs as the major players. By applying pressure to your opponent, you can achieve a submission or unconsciousness through strangulation. To defend against this submission move, do not allow your arm to be pressed across your face if you are held with the scarf hold.
And get out of the scarf hold! Getting all this gripping in very tight is critical to making this move work. You can even have slight variants on this position. You might even have one of your legs between his. It still might work. You will score a tap out with this move. You can just as easily perform this attack on the left wrist, of course, mirroring all the movements described here.
To defend against this submission attempt, get both of your hands together and then spin your body. So if your opponent has your right arm all grappled up, try to attach it to your left hand in some way, and while pulling them in together tightly, spin right in order to face your adversary.
Normally there are two ways this happens. One way or the other, spin your lower body around with your upper body. This renders the armlock ineffective. If you execute this escape when your opponent has his back to the ground, you can even get to a top position, either into his guard, having both your arms inside his legs, or into a side mount position, getting around the outside of his left thigh and then applying a hold down.
Now you are both facing the same way. Press down on the shoulder with your left leg while pressing forward with your hips. Use your belly, hips, and left leg to make sure the arm does not get out.
You can do with your right what the situation demands. Continue to pull with the left leg while pressing forward with the hips and down with the left arm. This will induce the submission.
Omoplata, Part 1: Do not allow your opponent to pull your wrist down outside his hip, and do not let him get his leg over your shoulder. Grapple a lot! Omoplata, Part 2: Getting the Leg into Position Omoplata, Part 3: It works just as well in a no gi situation such as the kind we are treating in this book as it does in a judo tourney. With your opponent in your guard, grab his right wrist with both of your hands and control it. Next, keeping a very strong hold on the wrist with your left hand, release your right in order to overhook his right upper arm.
Kimura, Part 1: Then push his left wrist in the direction of his left hip while cranking up with your right elbow. In this case, you aim to press his left wrist toward his head, while cranking up with your left elbow. Trapping the Arm Americana, Part 2: The twisting and pressing makes it work one way or the other. Just be sure that everything is tight and that you are continuing to pin him with the rest of your body.
This makes the armlock work. Scarf Lock, Part 2 Mickey lifts his hips to get the tap out. It is somewhat unique amongst submission techniques because it can be done fairly easily while standing up.
Its modern name comes from the French instrument of death. The guillotine can be done either standing or on the ground. Wedge your right forearm under his chin and up into his throat.
Join your hands together, squeeze everything in tightly, and lift your forearm up. If you are doing this move on the ground, or are going to the ground, you need to get your legs into the closed guard position and make everything tight.
Against an experienced grappler, this technique can be hard to make work. Peel the forearm out too, by pulling down on the wrist of that arm. You may have noticed that in most submission techniques, you are using several strong body parts, like legs, hips, and arms, to attack a weak body part like the neck or one arm.
In gi events, the friction of the gi allows for some leglocks to work fairly well as they catch and trap the leg. In MMA, where we are dealing with slippery individuals in shorts, it is rather hard to trap the leg. But there are two very effective leglocks that can be used. One, the kneebar, is done very much like the basic armlock described above. Next, pull back on the ankle with your arms, and if you like, grip it even more tightly in a hug.
Then press forward with your hips while pulling back with your arms and legs. You can then spin in for the move. The other good leglock for mixed martial arts is the heel hook. Trap his, say, left foot under your right armpit and apply the same hand technique as for the guillotine choke, but to the ankle.
To make it work, simply change your hand position. This completes the maneuver and enables you to get the tap out. This is a metaphor, but a helpful one. Just knowing how to perform the moves in the skills chapters is not enough. However, do not move on to the chapters on strategy and sparring until you fully understand and can practice what is contained in the skills chapters. Starting with an initial position, we will look at how it can morph into others and what to do along the way to make sure you have the greatest possible advantage at each stage of the game.
The drills described here are designed to develop your sense of what to use and when, in the most common and most precarious situations. This chapter is meant to be read through over and over again during your training so that you can apply it to your sparring and fighting.
To learn how to use this information to good effect, work through the progressions with your coach and training partners, on the mats. Assiduously practice the drills. Sparring only with the same group of training partners gets you into a comfort zone where you tend to overtrain certain positions as fight patterns develop. This is why live drilling is so important. You cannot fully anticipate what positions you will end up in while fighting in the cage, so you have to be prepared for all of them.
Regarding striking, sparring with partners will give you positional control and accuracy, but it will weaken your power because you have to take care not to harm your partners. This is why there is no substitute for focus mitts and pads drills. While doing them you have to hit at full speed and power at all the angles and positions of a real match. You can knee, elbow, punch, and throw an unbalanced adversary in the clinch, and you can prevent him doing the same to you by keeping yourself balanced and in control of the grips.
Conversely, if your antagonist knocks you off balance in the clinch, you will be put in the position of having to defend yourself or escape from those same elbows, punches, and throws. Upright wrestling drills are therefore perfect for developing the ability to control the clinch. From this base of upright wrestling, you need to expand your skills outward in two directions. One direction leads to skills involving more and more distance between yourself and your opponent: Another direction leads to the ground: We start by examining the mounted position on the ground and then expand outward from it all the way to free kicking standing up.
It is of course the ultimate position for winning in MMA, akin to threatening checkmate in chess. But why is this so? To begin with, you are pinning your opponent across the chest, sitting on him actually, with your legs providing support to both sides to stop you from being tipped off either to the right or to the left. The person being pinned has no way to effectively stop your powerful punches from being rained down upon his face, a very brittle part of the body: While the bottom person can still put up some resistance to the beating, his disadvantage is so great that you will end up scoring a tap or knockout if he cannot escape in time.
If you are the one on top, you need to keep your opponent pinned and yourself from being tossed off. Your strategy involves focusing on several things: If your opponent rolls to his left, you must counter by extending your right leg, being fully prepared to shift legs if your opponent rolls the other way.
You need to do the same thing if your opponent is trying to trap your ankle into his side to start rolling you off: Beware also of your opponent trying to scoot his arms and head right under you and out the back. This is prevented by not allowing his arms to get under your hips. Keep your head and torso up. If you bow down to effect a grapplingstyle pin, you deny yourself the necessary space to deliver strikes, and even worse, your opponent can tire you out and even start to get away by clamping your head down, encircling your neck and upper back with his arms.
You can look for the opportunity to effect a basic armlock when your antagonist stretches out one of his arms straight while trying to stop your hits.
If you are sure you can pull this move off, you can win with it immediately. If you are not sure, then stick to your striking strategy. If your adversary manages to pop you up a bit and turn over to his hands and knees in turtle position, besides hitting his head, you can also try to take back control by getting your hooks in.
You normally have to get one hook in at a time. Sometimes this requires some effort because an intelligent opponent will be trying to thwart your attempts. Then do the same for the other leg. If you let up your pressure, your opponent can begin to escape.
Do not cross your legs or you can get leglocked by your opponent pressing down on them with his own legs. From here you can attempt a rear naked choke.
If you are on the bottom of a full mount, you are of course in, for lack of a better way of putting it, the worst position possible. Things, however, are not necessarily entirely hopeless.
There are some things you can try to do. Just as you were cautious to avoid denying yourself room to strike when you were on top, here you can be aggressive by trying to take striking room away from your opponent.
Unfortunately, unless the bell is about to go off signaling the end of a round, merely attempting to block the strikes of your opponent from beneath a full mount will only delay the inevitable, and sooner or later you will succumb to his efforts and lose the match.
Therefore, your only hope is to actually get out of the pin. A skilled opponent, however, will not simply go soaring off like a bird for you. So try to tie up one of his arms either by clamping it under one of your armpits or by grabbing it tightly at the wrist. Then thrust your hips up. Rise up on your toes when you pop your hips to give the move greater leverage.
You do this by simply placing your foot over the top of his and setting it down tightly against the outside of his ankle. It is almost effortless now for you to roll over toward that same side.
Keep in mind that your opponent will be actively trying to stop you from trapping his ankles and arms, so you have to be deft and clever to dupe him into letting you tie them up like this and roll him over. At this time you might consider a more desperate attempt to get out by turtling yourself. Turtling is very risky because it makes you vulnerable to the rear naked choke and keeps you in great danger of blows to the head. But it can be an improvement over being in a full mount if you play it right or if the rules do not allow your opponent to strike your head from behind.
Crouching like this is called turtling. In MMA, you will most certainly be beaten to a pulp. Also, under no circumstances allow your opponent to wrap his heels into your inner thighs, as discussed earlier from the offensive perspective.
Your adversary will still have taken your back with your legs clamped, but at least you will open yourself up to better options. Rolling is a viable strategy if your opponent gets his hooks in while you are kneeling. As the name implies, simply roll so that you are on top of your opponent.
In this position, you will both be facing the sky while your opponent has his chest pressed against your back, his hooks still in place.
To do so, grab hold of the wrist that your opponent is trying to choke you with and lean your body to that side. It is stuck; he cannot move it to squeeze your neck any tighter. So, for example, if your opponent has your back in back control with hooks in and crosses his right leg over his left, quickly overhook his right leg with your right leg, place your left calf or ankle over top of your right shin or ankle, and press down.
You can get a swift submission with this move and win the entire match with this little trick! Interestingly, a person with thick legs can do a one-legged ankle lock on an opponent regardless of whether he crosses his legs.
With strong legs, only one leg is needed to overBack Control Leglock Retaliation hook the ankle and apply Adam on top is about to make Chris on the the pressure.
Being on your hands and knees can be disastrous for you if you stay there, but if you turtle for only an instant in order to stabilize your body for getting back up onto your feet, it can be a very good thing! While an opponent who is only grappling and not striking you will likely be able to keep your turtle pressed down and prevent you from rising, one who is winding up to hit you with arms and knees will generate space that you can take advantage of to stand up.
While your head is more vulnerable to strikes in the turtle than in a back down pin, you have the chance to immediately get back up to your feet from the turtle and retaliate, whereas from a back down pin you do not; you are quite stuck. It is even possible to throw your opponent with a leg grab throw like the double leg takedown if you manage to tackle his legs.
However, for the purposes of MMA, think of the turtle as a pin and a bad place to be, although it is better than being fully mounted and has a few options available to get back up to your feet quickly.
Let us say your opponent is straddling you in a back mount and has wrapped his right arm over or under your right shoulder, clamping you in tight and preventing you from standing up and getting away.
Start out by simply clamping his arm in even more tightly. You are now in the perfect position to perform your shoulder or winding throw.
Full Mount Drill It is imperative that you train to handle both the top and bottom positions of the full mount. You have to be able to keep your position on top and win from there if you manage to attain it, and conversely, you have to be able to escape if you happen to be on the bottom. Practice pinning a training partner with the full mount. Make sure you keep your posture upright and do not bend your upper body down as if executing a judo or wrestling pin. The drill is for your partner to try to escape from your mount, and it is your duty to prevent him from doing so.
The top person in this drill only needs to prevent the bottom person from doing any of these things. However, if the top player is able to achieve a submission, for example the rear naked choke from back control, even better! Please keep in mind that a back control is valid regardless of whether the one executing it is on top of or underneath his opponent.
We stop at the unhooked turtle position in this drill to allow for focus on the mounted position. A separate drill, the par terre drill, fully treats the turtle.
To complement it, you should also sometimes add in light striking, as you will notice is recommended for all the grappling drills you will meet with in this chapter. However, you need to feel how the striking affects your grappling positioning, as it most certainly does. Mounting your opponent gives you a greater chance of winning than any other single position in mixed martial arts. Handling the Turtle There are some caveats though regarding the full mount.
If your opponent is turtling, there is no need in MMA for you to try for a full mount. If your opponent turtles for you, it is a gift. Being able to prevent a turtler from getting up while you hit him actually takes a lot of grappling practice and skill, so do lots of intense grappling to prepare yourself! This position is where your partner has turtled and you are on top. It is your job to try to keep him down in turtle position, submit him, or turn him over to his back. If you are defending, you will want to ensure your partner does not get his hooks in on you in order to prevent him from taking your back.
Do not use strikes in this drill for safety in training. You can do this drill at full power because you are not including strikes, and it will do a lot for your ability to grapple. You should play the role of both top and bottom person in this drill to learn how to handle the turtle from both sides. Now it is harder to keep the turtler down as he has more space to get up and less pressure pushing down on his back. The aim in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, as it often is in MMA, is to pass the guard into full mount if you are the top person, and to effect a sweep and end up on top in full mount, or simply scoot out and stand up, if you are the bottom person.
What we must now do is learn to put them together in sequence. It is possible to wear out your opponent with this, and even score a knockout at some point.
However, there are many variables that affect how good a strategy this is. Therefore, you need to be able to pass guard, or at least constantly threaten to, to put your adversary on the defensive rather than the offensive. This is called having good base. Doing this pins his hips down for you.
You want to make it hard for your antagonist to move around underneath you. You need to stop him from swiveling his hips around and catching you with a submission. You want to frustrate him and tire him out. If you can keep your adversary stuck in one place under you, then you are the one in control, and you can focus on attacking rather than defending.
Even though you have erect posture, remember to avoid armlocks by keeping your arms bent. Whether you are passing guard or striking through guard, keep an upright posture. In grappling tourneys you have to pass guard, and techniques involving grabbing the legs are often employed for this. Do not feel, however, that you always have to pass guard. Therefore you must play your cards wisely. Neural adjustments in help athletes to develop explosive power. The first would be characterized by high intensi- and kicking, catching a medicine ball and throwing it back, ties weights , reduced volumes sets, repetitions and exer- etc.
This method is based on the use of strength training pro- An appropriate strength-training program for MMA tocols, generally maximum strength, as potentiating exer- should follow a periodization considering the neural and cises for subsequent activities demanding high speed for muscle adaptations abovementioned . For example, a execution. This phenomenon of sharp development induced logical sequence of priorities could be the following: 1 ini- by a previous contractile activity is known as post-activation tial strength gain, 2 hypertrophy, 3 maximum strength, 4 potentiation .
An example for MMA training would be to power, and 5 power sustainability. In this sequence, each have athletes perform a strength exercise against a heavy step leads to maximization of the next. Professionals in- resistance followed by technical actions of high speed such volved with MMA need to be aware of how to maximize as punches or kicks. The latter exer- variable in strength training, which modulates acute and cises are extremely complex and frequently employed in chronic neuromuscular responses .
The implements em- strength and power training for different modalities [14, 23]. Meadows Peta- above the head. The high ability of force production, Despite its common use, the inclusion of instability exer- associated with a high speed performing the movements, cises has been associated with decrease in the ability of creates a potentially favorable environment for the develop- peak-force production, RFD and neural activity in the ago- ment of muscle power [14, 23].
Olympic Weightlifting can nist muscle group [28, 29]. Such effects have been observed increment not only power production, but also the capacity acutely [27, 30] and may lead to a chronic attenuation in the Mixed Martial Arts: History, Physiology and Training Aspects The Open Sports Science Journal, , Volume 8 5 performance of specific tests such as countermovement Recently, Jetton et al.
Chulvi-Medrano dration, acute weight gain, and rehydration in MMA athletes and colleagues  examined the force production and activ- before competition. The results indicated letes. The results showed that the MMA athletes gained a that force production and muscle activity are higher in stable mean of 3.
Similarly, McBride and colleagues 22 hours before competition. Thirty-nine percent of the ath-  observed that the production of maximum isometric letes presented with a urine specific gravity of 1. The integrated cant proportion of MMA athletes are not successfully rehy- electromyography activity of vastus lateralis and vastus me- drating before competition and subsequently are competing dialis was approximately It has been reported that dehydra- tion inhibits performance and may induce health risks that In terms of chronic adaptations, Cressey and colleagues can potentially lead to death .
We recommend that MMA  reported that 10 weeks of training with additional exer- governing bodies, both at national and international levels, cises on unstable discs resulted in attenuation of increments take a proactive approach in education and implementation in power and displacement speed in football athletes when of weight management regulations that could prevent rapid compared to a group training on stable surfaces only.
The weight loss in MMA events. Using such devices can lead to In a recent study, Greek researchers simulated a regular attenuation in the increment of strength and muscle power.
It competition day of wrestling and found interesting results can also result in detrimental neural adaptations such as . The competition-simulating test was able to reproduce greater activation of agonist and inhibition of antagonists fatigue indices quite compatible to those reported in actual muscle groups, leading to considerable delay and loss in the competitions, demonstrating a high energy demand in Greek physical training process of the athletes.
The purpose of weight classes is to match athletes that 4th qualifying fight. Meanwhile, many athletes adopt the strategy of drasti- oxidant responses in middle-aged adults training Soo Bahk cally reducing their body weight prior to the official weigh- Do, a traditional Korean martial art. The results showed that in so that they qualify for the intended weight class, and hy- Soo Bahk Do practitioners have higher GSH background pothetically gain some physical advantage over the oppo- levels than sedentary individuals of similar age, and a better nent.
Similar an- the official event. The acute rapid weight loss is often made tioxidant variations were also observed in the plasma of Ser- by a combination of potentially harmful strategies like severe bian karatekas at the end of an extended training program.
In , three collegiate tation as a coadjutant strategy to improve athletic perform- wrestlers allegedly died from heat-related stroke caused by ance . However, most of the evidence indicates the effi- dehydration levels ranging from 6. Developing maximal neu- ing training and competition periods. Sports Med ; Increased rate of force development and neural drive of human skeletal muscle following resistance training. J Appl MMA is an exciting and complex combat sport. Despite Physiol ; Muscle strength and efficient means and methods for the improvement of testing: evaluation of tests of explosive force production.
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WMJ ; 1 : Risk of cervical injuries tions in depth jump training. J Strength Cond Res ; in mixed martial arts. Br J Sports Med ; Factors modulating post-activation potentia-  Lenetsky S, Harris N. The mixed martial arts athlete: a physiologi- tion and its effect on performance of subsequent explosive activi- cal profile.
Strength effects of ten weeks of lower-body unstable surface training on and conditioning considerations for mixed martial arts. Strength markers of athletic performance. Unified Rules for MMA. The impact of instability resistance train- New Orleans, LA Isometric squat force output and martial arts competition.
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